Ajamoda (Apium graveolens) is also known as celery, and it consists of dried, aromatic fruits of Apium graveolens (Pers.) F. V. M. ex Benth. (Fam. Umbelliferae). Ajamoda (Apium graveolens) is an annual herb cultivated in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Karnataka. It is mainly collected by thrashing plants on a mat and dried in the shade or in drying sheds. Ajamoda is well known for the management of digestive, urinary, cardiovascular, and respiratory disorders. It also helps in managing high blood pressure, indigestion, inflammation, bacterial and microbial infections. Ajamoda (Apium graveolens) ) is best known for managing gastrointestinal problems such as indigestion, bloating, flatulence, low appetite, abdominal cramps, and regularize bowel functions.
The seeds of Ajamoda (Apium graveolens) can be used externally also. The poultice is made using the seeds of Ajamoda in warm water to relieve gouty arthritis, rheumatoid, osteoarthritis, and non-specific arthritis. It is also beneficial to managing the conditions like bronchitis, cough, and asthma.
Scientific Classification of Ajamoda (Apium graveolens):
- Kingdom: Plantae – Plants
- Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
- Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants
- Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
- Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
- Subclass: Rosidae
- Order: Apiales
- Family: Apiaceae / Umbelliferae – Carrot family
- Genus: Apium L. – celery
- Species: Apium graveolens L. – wild celery
- Part(s) used for medicinal purpose: Leaves, Root, Seeds
- Plant type: herb
- Distribution: Central and southern states of India
- Habitat: Ditches, by rivers, and in other damp locations, especially near the sea in salt marshes
- Group: Dicot
Ajamoda (Apium graveolens) Synonyms:
- Sanskrit: Dipyaka, Ayamoda, Ajmoja
- Assamese: Bonjamani, Bonajain, Yamani, Ajowan
- Bengali: Randhuni, Banyamani
- Gujrati: Bodi Ajamo, Ajamo
- Hindi: Ajmuda, Ajmod
- Kannada: Oma, Ajavana, Omakki
- Kashmiri: Fakhazur, Banjuan
- Malayalam: Ayamodakum, Oman
- Marathi: Ajmoda, Oova
- Oriya: Banajuani
- Punjabi: Valjawain, Ajmod
- Tamil: Omam
- Telugu: Naranji vamu
- Urdu: Ajmod
Ajamoda (Apium graveolens) Description:
a) Macroscopic: The drug is consisting of small and oval fruit. It is yellowish-brown in color. Ajamoda (Apium graveolens) mainly occurs as entire cremocarps with pedicel attached or detached and bifid stylopod. Sometimes the curved free ends occur as separate mericarps; cremocarps glabrous, ovoid to conical, having 1.2 – 2.8 mm wide, and 1.5 – 3.0 mm long and is yellow to yellowish-green color. The separated mericarps are more or less curved and broadly oval. The dorsal surface has convex with five equally distinct and longitudinal primary ridge showing darker and light-colored longitudinal bands. The former representing the position of vittae and vascular bundles. Its odor is aromatic; the taste is slightly bitter, giving a three-sensation of warmth to the tongue.
b) Microscopic: The transverse section of Ajamoda (Apium graveolens) fruit shows mericarps; four vittae are present on the dorsal surface, out of which two on the commissural surface and four primary ridges on the dorsal surface. Also, it contains 3-5 secondary oil canals present under each primary ridge and in between each ridges carpophore present on the commissural surface.
Identity, Purity, and Strength of Ajamoda (Apium graveolens):
- Foreign matter Not more than 5 percent, Appendix 2.2.2.
- Total Ash Not more than 14 percent, Appendix 2.2.3.
- Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 4 percent, Appendix 2.2.4.
- Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 14 percent, Appendix 2.2.6.
- Water-soluble extractive Not less than 3 percent, Appendix 2.2.7.
- Volatile oil Not less than 2 percent v/w, Appendix 2.2.10.
Chemical Constituents of Ajamoda (Apium graveolens):
It is composed of Essential oil and fixed oil. Other than this, the main minerals in the seeds are phosphorus, calcium and iron, while its major vitamins are riboflavin, niacin, carotene, thiamine.
Ayurvedic Properties and Action of Ajamoda (Apium graveolens):
- Rasa: Katu, Tikta
- Guna: Laghu, Ruksha
- Virya: Ushna
- Vipaka: Katu
- Karma: Deepan, Ruchikrit, Shulghan, Vidahi, Kaphavatajit, Krimijit, Mutral, Aam nashak, Anuloman,
Ayurvedic Formulation made by Ajamoda (Apium graveolens):
The important formulations of Ajamoda (Apium graveolens) are Ajmoda Arka, Ajmodadi Churna, Mahayograj Guggal, Kankayan Vati, Vettumaran Gutika
Therapeutic Uses of Ajamoda (Apium graveolens):
Aruchi, Hikka, Gulma, Aadhman, Shoola, Krimiroga, Chardi, Shwas
Dose of Ajamoda (Apium graveolens):
1-3 gm of the drug in powder form.
Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India.