Gokshura consists of dried, ripe, and entire fruit of Tribulus terrestris Linn. (Fam Zygopyllaceae). It is one of the essential herbs among the commonly used herbs in the traditional system of medicine. It is an annual, rarely perennial, common weed of the pasture lands and mainly grows in colder climates. The leaves are opposite, usually unequal, pinnate, stipulate, and the leaflets are 5-8 pairs, mucronate, and elliptical. The flowers of Gokshura are solitary, yellow or white, and axillaries. The dried samples of Gokshur available in various regions of India, including Mumbai (Maharashtra), Jamnagar (Gujarat), Indore (Madhya Pradesh), and Delhi. Other than this, it is found in Asia, Australia, Southern Europe, and Southern Asia.
Gokshura is rich in anti-inflammatory, diuretic, lithotropic, aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic, analgesic, hepatoprotective, antispasmodic, anticancer, improves immunity, balances tridosha, useful in cardiac disorders, hypolipidemic, improves digestion, strength, central nervous system, absorption enhancing, and nourishes the body.
It effectively works in hair fall, joint-related disorders, obesity, eye problems, bed wetting, piles, low water retention capacity, stress, anxiety, nervousness, urinary diseases, male health-related diseases, etc. Gokshura helps release nitric oxide, which allows an increased flow of oxygen to all parts of the body, especially to the muscles. This makes the muscles effectively use up all the essential nutrients available in the blood. Regular use of gokshur acts as a natural vitalizer as it is effectively used for bodybuilding, gaining strength.
Scientific Classification of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris):
- Kingdom: Plantae – Plants
- Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
- Superdivision: Spermatophya – Seed plants
- Division: Magnoliophya – Flowering plants
- Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
- Subclass: Rosidae
- Order: Sapindales
- Family: Zygophyllaceae
- Genus: Tribulus L.
- Species: Tribulus terrestris
Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris) Synonyms:
- Sanskrit: Trikanta, Goksuraka, Trikantaka, Svadmastra
- Assamese: Gokhurkata, Gokshura
- Bengali: Gokhri, Gokshura
- English: Caltrops fruit
- Gujrati: Bethagokharu, Mithagokhru, Nanagokharu
- Hindi: Gokhru
- Kannada: Neggilamullu, Neggilu, Sannaneggilu
- Kashmiri: Pakhda, Michikand
- Malayalam: Nerinjil
- Marathi: Gokharu, Sarate
- Oriya: Gokhyura, Gukhura
- Punjabi: Bhakhra, Gokhru
- Tamil: Nerinjil, Nerunjil
- Telugu: Palleru Kaya
- Urdu: Khar-e-Khasak Khurd
Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris) Description:
a) Macroscopic: Gokshura fruit is stalked, greenish-yellow, five ribbed or angled, covered with short stiff or pubescent hairs, having 1 cm in diameter with five pairs. The tip of spines is almost met in pairs and are together, forming a pentagonal framework around the fruit. The ripe fruit separates into five segments, each occurs semi-lunar or plano-convex in structure, armed with a pair of spines starting from its middle and is containing more than four seeds; the taste is slightly astringent.
b) Microscopic: The transverse section of fruit shows small epidermal cells of each coccus rectangular. The mesocarp is of 6-10 layers having parenchymatous cells, crystals of calcium oxalate; the mesocarp is followed by 3-4 compact layers of small cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
Identity, Purity, and Strength of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris):
- Foreign matter Not more than 1 percent, Appendix 2.2.2.
- Total Ash Not more than 15 percent, Appendix 2.2.3.
- Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 2 percent, Appendix 2.2.4.
- Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 6 percent, Appendix 2.2.6.
- Water-soluble extractive Not less than 10 percent, Appendix 2.2.7.
Chemical Constituents of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris):
The main constituent of Tribulus terrestris includes F-gitonin, desglucolanatigonin, gitonin, Terrestrosins A, B, C, D, and E, degalactotigonin, N- trans- coumaroyl tyramine, ß-sitosterol, diosgenin, hecogenin and neotigogenin; tribulusamides A and B, and saponins.
Ayurvedic Properties and Action of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris):
- Rasa: Madhura
- Guna: Guru, Snigdha
- Virya: Sheeta
- Vipaka: Madhura
- Karma: Brahman, Vastishodhan, Ashmarihara, Varishya, Balaya, Shukra shodhana, Mutravirechana, Rakta shodhan, Vajikarak, Agnikrit, Shulaghan, Pramehahara, Drishtida.
Ayurvedic Formulation made by Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris):
The main formulations are Drakshadi churan, Trikantaka Ghrita, Gokshuradi Guggul, Yograj Guggul, Gokshuradi Churan, etc.
Therapeutic Uses of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris):
Gokshura can be used in Shoolroga, Arsha, Daurbalaya, Hridroga, Kasa, Mutrakricha, Ashmari, Prameha, Shwasa.
Dose of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris):
- 3-6 gm of the drug in powder.
- 20-30 gm of the drug for decoction.
Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India.