Dhataki (Woodfordia fruticosa) (Linn.) Kurz. (Fam. Lythraceae) is much-branched, semi deciduous, undershrub and is having about 1-3 m high; rarely up to 3 m. The branches of Dhataki are long and multi spreading. The leaves are simple and covered with white hairs. The flowers are in a cluster and are red-orange. The fruit contains many smooth and tiny brown seeds.
Among the various species used in folk medicine, Dhataki (Woodfordia fruticosa) has been widely used by practitioners of traditional medicines in different countries for a long time. Though the whole plant part exhibits unique therapeutic properties, dhataki flowers have been in great demand in international markets, and domestic specialized in preparing herbal medicines. Various parts of Woodfordia fruticosa possess valuable medicinal properties like anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, Hepato-protective, and free radical scavenging activity.
Scientific Classification of Dhataki (Woodfordia fruticosa):
- Kingdom: Planate
- Phylum: Tracheophyta
- Class: Magnoliopsida
- Order: Myrtales
- Family: Lytharaceae
- Genus: Woodforda
- Species: floribunda
Dhataki (Woodfordia fruticosa) Synonyms:
- Sanskrit: Bahupuspi, Tamrapuspi, Vahnijvala
- Assamese: Dhaiphool
- Bengali: Dhaiphul
- English: Fire flame bush
- Gujrati: Dhavadi, Dhavani
- Hindi: Dhai, Dhava
- Kannada: Dhataki, Tamrapushpi
- Kashmiri: Kath
- Malayalam: Tattiripuvu, Tatire
- Marathi: Dhayati, Dhavati
- Oriya: Dhaiphula, Dhatuki
- Punjabi: Davi, Phul Dhava
- Tamil: Kattati, Kattathi, Kattattipoo
- Telugu: Aarl Puruvu
Dhataki (Woodfordia fruticosa) Description:
a) Macroscopic: The Flower of Dhataki (Woodfordia fruticosa) is about 1.2 cm long and occurs as single or in bunches of 2-15. The calyx is about 1.0-1.6 cm long, ridged and glabrous, and the color is bright red when fresh, but on drying, it fades. A very minute accessory sepal is attached outside the juncture of the calyx tooth and is deeper in color. The petals are 6 in numbers and are stuck inside the mouth of the calyx tube, slightly longer than the calyx tooth.
The filament filiform is curved at the apex, keeping anthers inside calyx-tube, and is almost rounded or broadly ovate. The carpels are united in 2, ovary superior, style filiform, long than ovary and stamens, taste, astringent.
b) Microscopic: The transverse section of sepal shows a single-layered cuti secularised epidermis, provided with both glandular and covering trichomes. The epithelial is multi-cellular, long, and is consisting of a thin-walled stalk and a globose. The unicellular thick-walled is broad at the base and pointed at the apex. The ground tissue consists of thin-walled, parenchymatous cells provided with very few sparsely distributed covering trichomes. The transverse section of filament shows an epidermis composed of single-layered tangentially elongated cells and is covered with a very thick-cuticle ground tissue that consists of thin-walled parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces and is surrounded by a vascular cylinder of spirally thickened vessels.
The transverse section of anther shows a single-layered epidermis covered with a cuticle followed by several layers of thickened cells and is surrounded by pollen-sacs having numerous pollen grains measuring approximately 12-16 µ.
Identity, Purity, and Strength of Dhataki (Woodfordia fruticosa):
Foreign matter Not more than 2 percent, Appendix 2.2.2. Total Ash Not more than 10 percent, Appendix 2.2.3. Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1 percent, Appendix 2.2.4. Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 7 percent, Appendix 2.2.6. Water-soluble extractive Not less than 28 percent, Appendix 2.2.7.
Chemical Constituents of Dhataki (Woodfordia fruticosa):
The Stem of Dhataki contains C-glycosidenorbergenin, yield gum, and betasitosterol.k. Its leaves are rich in ursolic acid, betulinic acid, woodfruticosin, lawsone, Lupeol, betulin, beta-sitosterol. Woodfordia fruticosa flowers are rich in Woodfordins A- D, oenotherin A.
Ayurvedic Properties and Action of Dhataki (Woodfordia fruticosa):
- Rasa: Katu, Kashaya
- Guna: Laghu
- Virya: Sheeta
- Vipaka: Katu
- Karma: Grahi, Garbhasthapan, Vishaghana, Sandhaniya, Pittakapha hara.
Ayurvedic Formulation made by Dhataki (Woodfordia fruticosa):
The Ayurvedic formulation of Dhataki is Pathyadi Kwath, Saraswatharishtam, Brihat Gangadhar Churan, Ushirasava.
Therapeutic Uses of Dhataki (Woodfordia fruticosa):
The main indications of Dhataki are Vrana, Visarpa, Atisara, Raktapitta,
Dose of Dhataki (Woodfordia fruticosa):
- 3-6 gm of Powder
- 10-20 ml twice a day.
Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India.