Svarnapatri (Cassia angustifolia) is a small shrub, having 60-75 cm high, and is found throughout the year. It is cultivated largely in Southern India, especially in districts of Tiruchirapally, Madurai, and Tinnevelly, and has also been introduced in Mysore. It is fully brown and thick, the bluish color leaves are stripped off by hand, collected, and dried in shade for 7-10 days till assuming a yellowish-green color.
Svaranapatri dried leaf is used as a purgative and effectively works in conditions like severe constipation, abdominal distension, heaviness, etc. In various diseases, the leaf of cassia angustifolia is applied along with the other Ayurvedic herbs. The roots of svaranapatri are effectively used in bleeding disorders like nasal bleeding, heavy periods, etc. Also, it is rich in Shukrakshaya properties and effectively helps in balancing Vata-related disorders.
Taking the leaf powder of svaranpatri along with lukewarm water helps in managing weight by improving the digestive fire and thus digestion due to its appetizer and hot potency. It effectively helps in managing blood sugar levels by increasing insulin production due to its antioxidants properties. In the Unani System of medicine, the herb is used in the formulation of treating lumbago, hip pain, sciatica, gout, cardiac asthma, scabies, acne.
Scientific Classification of Svarnapatri (Cassia angustifolia):
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Clade: Tracheophytes
- Order: Fabale
- Family: Fabaceae
- Sub Family: Caesalpinioideae
- Tribe: Cassieae
- Genus: Senna
Svarnapatri (Cassia angustifolia) Synonyms:
- Sanskrit: Madani
- Assamese: Sonamukhi
- Bengali: Svamamukhi, Sonapata
- English: Indian Senna. Tinnevelly Senna
- Gujrati: Mindhiaval, Sonamukhi
- Hindi: Sanaya, Hindisana
- Kannada: Nelavarika, Sonamukhi, Nelaavare, Nelavarike, Nela Aanriake
- Kashmiri: Sna
- Malayalam: Sunnamukhi, Nilavaka, Chinnukki, Adapatiyan
- Marathi: Sonamukhi
- Oriya: Sunamukhi
- Punjabi: Sannamakhi, Sanapati, Sarnapatta
- Tamil: Nilapponnai, Avarai
- Telugu: Sunamukhi
- Urdu: Sena, Barg-e-Sana
Svarnapatri (Cassia angustifolia) Description:
a) Macroscopic: The leaflets of Svarnapatri are 7-15 mm wide at the center and 2.5-6 cm long. It is pale yellowish-green, elongated lanceolate, slightly asymmetric at the base. The entire margins are flat, apex acute with a sharp spine. Both surfaces are smooth with sparse trichomes and faint but distinctive. The taste is mucilaginous and disagreeable but not distinctly bitter.
b) Microscopic: The transverse section of leaflet through midrib shows epidermal cells, isobilateral structure, straight-walled containing mucilage. Both the surfaces bear scattered, unicellular hair often conical, and are curved near the base. The thick-walled is non-lignified, warty cuticle, and is numerous on both surfaces. The mesophyll consists of upper and lower palisade layers with a spongy layer in between palisade cells of the upper surface longer than those of the lower surface.
The prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate are present on larger veins and clusters of calcium oxalate crystals are distributed throughout the palisade and spongy tissues. The midrib is surrounded by a zone of pericyclic fibers and a crystal sheath of parenchymatous cells containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate.
Identity, Purity, and Strength of Svarnapatri (Cassia angustifolia):
- Foreign matter Not more than 1 percent, Appendix 2.2.2.
- Total Ash Not more than 14 percent, Appendix 2.2.3.
- Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 2 percent, Appendix 2.2.4.
- Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 percent, Appendix 2.2.6.
- Water-soluble extractive Not less than 25 percent, Appendix 2.2.7.
Chemical Constituents of Svarnapatri (Cassia angustifolia):
The svaranpatri herb contains beta-sitosterol, flavones, tartaric acid, essential oil, mucilage, tannin, resin, anthraquinone glycosides (sennosides, aloe-emodin, rhein) mucin, etc.
Ayurvedic Properties and Action of Svarnapatri (Cassia angustifolia):
- Rasa (taste): Katu, Tikta, Kshaya
- Guna (quality): Laghu, Ruksha, Tikshana
- Virya (potency): Ushna
- Vipaka (taste conversion after digestion): Katu
- Karma: Rechana
Ayurvedic Formulations made by Svarnapatri (Cassia angustifolia):
The important formulations of Svaranpatri are Sarivadyasava, Panchasakar Churna.
Therapeutic Uses of Svarnapatri (Cassia angustifolia):
Svarnapatri is indicated in Gulma, Udara, Visha, Vibhandha, Durgandha Kasa.
Dose of Svarnapatri (Cassia angustifolia):
0.5-2 g of the drug in powder form.
Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India.
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